Phrasal verb = Verb + Particle (the particle can be a preposition or an adverb)
Some phrasal verbs don’t have an object.
Sit down, please!
What time do you get up?
Some phrasal verbs have an object and they are separable. They are separable because you can put the object between them.
Put on your shoes. (your shoes is the object)
Put your shoes on.
Turn off the computer. (the computer is the object)
Turn the computer off.
If the object is a pronoun then it goes between the verb and particle.
Here are your shoes. Put them on. (NOT: Put on them.)
Some phrasal verbs have an object and they are inseparable, which means that the verb and the particle are always next to each other.
I am looking for my phone.
What are you looking for?
Personally, I don’t know any effective way of learning phrasal verbs. Language exposure should help.