|Direct speech||Reported (indirect) speech|
|"I love you."||He said that he loved her.|
|"I want to see you tomorrow."||He told her that he wanted to see her again.|
|"I can help you."||He said that he could help me.|
|"I spoke to him."||He told me that he had spoken to him.|
|"I will learn the lesson."||He told me that he would learn the lesson.|
|"I have been at home since 5 o’clock."||He said that he had been at home since 5 o’clock.|
|"Do you want to eat?"||He asked her if she wanted to eat.|
|"Where do you study?"||He asked her where she studied.|
“That” is optional after “say” and “tell”.
In reported speech pronouns also change (I – He/She).
You can’t use “said” with an object or pronoun. (Do not say: He said her he loved her.)
You must use “told” with an object. (Do not say: He told that ...)
In reported questions the tenses change in the same way as they change in reported sentences.
Don’t use “do/did” in reported questions.
In reported questions add “if” if the question begins with do, can, would, could.