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How to pronounce s and ed endings

Pronouncing the suffixes (also known as word endings) -s and -ed are usually a big problem for learners of English, particularly for Vietnamese (and probably other Asians). Using and pronouncing them don't make sense for Vietnamese learners since their language doesn't use such features. Here you have a short simple guide on pronunciation of the -s and -ed suffixes.

How to pronounce -s termination

The -s ending of verbs and nouns can be pronounced in three different ways: -s, -z, and -iz.

-s -z -iz
Hops Begins Boxes
Picks Goes Watches
Starts Needs Kisses
Books Studies Washes

The termination –s/-es is pronounced /s/ after UNVOICED consonants except /s/, /ʃ/, and /ʧ/.
Example: hopes, picks, starts, books.

The termination –s/-es is pronounced /z/ after VOICED consonants except /z/, /ʒ/, and /ʤ/
Example: begins, studies, goes, needs.

The termination –s/-es is pronounced /iz/ (or /əz/ in some cases) after /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ʧ/ and /ʤ/.
Example: boxes, watches, kisses, washes.

How to pronounce -ed termination

The -ed ending of verbs in past tense can be pronounced in three different ways: -t, -d, and -id.

-t -d -id
Helped Carried Needed
Looked Climbed Persisted
Watched Robbed Waited
Zipped Traveled Wanted

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